• 1
    Conn HO. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteriemia in Laennec's cirrhosis caused by enteric organisms. A relatively common but rarely recognized syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1964; 60:568580
  • 2
    García-Tsao G. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dis Clin North Am 1992; 21: 257275.
  • 3
    Berg RD, Garlington AW. Translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other organs in gnotobiotic mouse model. Infect Immun 1979; 23: 403411.
  • 4
    Runyon B, Squier S, Borzio M. Translocation of gut bacteria in rats with cirrhosis to mesenteric lymph nodes partially explains the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 792796.
  • 5
    Rimola A, Navasa M. Infections in liver disease. In: BircherJ, BenhamouJP, McIntyreN, RizzettoM, RodésJ, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999: 18611874.
  • 6
    Hofmann AF. The continuing importance of bile acids in liver and intestinal disease. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 26472658.
  • 7
    Floch MH, Gershengoren W, Elliott S, Spiro HM. Bile acid inhibition of the intestinal microflora—a function for simple bile acids. Gastroenterology 1971; 61: 228233.
  • 8
    Binder HJ, Filburn B, Floch M. Bile acid inhibition of intestinal anaerobic organisms. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28: 119125.
  • 9
    Sung JY, Shaffer EA, Costerton JW. Antibacterial activity of bile salts against common pathogens. Effects of hydrophobicity of the molecule and the presence of phospholipids. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 21042112.
  • 10
    Raedsch R., Stiehl A, Gundert-Remy U, Walker S, Sieg A, Czygan P, Kommerell B. Hepatic secretion of bilirubin and biliary lipids in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. Digestion 1983; 26: 8088.
  • 11
    Chesta J, Silva M, Thompson L, del Canto E, Defilippi C. Bacterial overgrowth in small intestine in patients with liver cirrhosis. Rev Med Chil 1991; 119: 626632.
  • 12
    Chang CS, Cheng H, Lien HC, Yeh HZ. Small intestine dismotility and bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1998; 28: 11871190.
  • 13
    Bauer TM, Steinbruckner B, Birinkmann FE, Ditzen AK, Schwatcha H, Aponte JJ, Pelz K, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with cirrhosis: prevalence and relation with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 29622967.
    Direct Link:
  • 14
    Pardo A, Bartolí R, Lorenzo-Zúñiga V, Planas R, Viñado B, Riba J, Cabre E, et al. Effect of cisapride on intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2000; 31: 858863.
  • 15
    Hylemon PB. Metabolism of bile acids in intestinal microflora. In: DanielssonH, SjovallJ, eds. Sterols and Bile Acids. New York: Elsevier, 1985:331343.
  • 16
    Bjornason I, Peters TJ, Wise RJ. The leaky gut of alcoholism: possible route of entry for toxic compounds. Lancet 1984; 1: 179182.
  • 17
    Keshavarzian A, Holmes EW, Patel M, Iber F, Fields JZ, Pethkar S. Leaky gut in alcoholic cirrhosis: a possible mechanism for alcohol-induced liver damage. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 200207.
    Direct Link:
  • 18
    Campillo B, Pernet P, Bories PN, Richardet JP, Devanlay M, Aussel C. Intestinal permeability in liver cirrhosis: relationship with severe septic complications. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 11: 755759.
  • 19
    Parlesak A, Schafer C, Schutz T, Bode JC, Bode C. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 742747.
  • 20
    Cakmakci M, Tirnaksiz B, Hayran M, Belek S, Gurbuz T, Salek I. Effects of obstructive jaundice and external biliary diversion on bacterial translocation in rats. Eur J Surg 1996; 162: 567571.
  • 21
    Deitch EA, Sittig K, Ma L, Berg R, Specian RD. Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation from the gut. Am J Surg 1990; 159: 7994.
  • 22
    Parks RW, Clements WD, Pope C, Halliday MI, Rowlands BJ, Diamond T. Bacterial translocation and gut microflora in obstructive jaundice. J Anatomy 1996; 189: 561565.
  • 23
    Ding JW, Andersson R, Soltesz V, Willen R, Bengmark S. The role of bile and bile acids in bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice in rats. Eur Surg Res 1993; 25: 1119.
  • 24
    Sayan M, Alponat A, Yavuz N, Aaltinkaya E, Goksel S, Sariyar M. The effect of oral sodium taurocholate on endotoxemia and intestinal anastomotic wound healing in rats with obstructive jaundice. Surg Today 1997; 27: 953957.
  • 25
    Schmassmann A, Angellotti MA, Ton-Nu H-T, Schteingart CD, Marcus S, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF. Transport, metabolism and effect of chronic feeding of cholylsarcosine, a conjugated bile acid resistant to deconjugation and dehydroxylation. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 163174.
  • 26
    Schmassmann A, Fehr HF, Locher J, Lillienau J, Schteingart D, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF. Cholylsarcosine, a new bile acid analogue: metabolism and effect on biliary secretion in humans. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 11711181.
  • 27
    Heuman DM, Vlahcevic ZR, Pandak WM, Hylemon PB, Kim YS, Lillienau J, Hofmann AF. Effect of cholylsarcosine on hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and bile secretion in rats. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 16411648.
  • 28
    Lillienau J, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF. Physicochemical and physiological properties of cholylsarcosine: a potential replacement detergent for bile acid deficiency states in the small intestine. J Clin Invest 1992; 89: 420431.
  • 29
    Runyon BA, Sugano S, Kanel G, Mellencamp MA. A rodent model of cirrhosis, ascites and bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 489493.
  • 30
    Llovet JM, Bartoli R, Planas R, Cabré E, Jiménez M, Urban A, Ojanguren I, et al. Bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats. Its role in the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gut 1994; 35: 16481652.
  • 31
    Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Ton-Nu H, Rossi SS, Odell D, Hofmann AF. β-Phocacholic acid in bile: biochemical evidence that the flamingo is related to an ancient goose. The Condor 1990; 92: 593597.
  • 32
    Rossi SS, Converse JL, Hofmann AF. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of conjugated bile acids in human bile: simultaneous resolution of sulfated and unsulfated lithocholyl amidates and the common conjugated bile acids. J Lipid Res 1987; 28: 589595.
  • 33
    Dunér K. A new kinetic single stage Limulus amebocyte lysate method for the detection of endotoxin in water and plasma. J BiochemBiophys Meth 1993; 26: 131142.
  • 34
    Zhang R, Barnes S, Diasio RB. Differential intestinal deconjugation of taurine and glycine bile acid N-acyl amidates in rats. Am J Physiol 1992; 262: G351G358.
  • 35
    Kallner A. On the biosynthesis and metabolism of allodeoxycholic acid in the rat. Acta Chem Scand 1967; 21: 315321.
  • 36
    Kuipers F, Havinga R, Bosschieter H, Toorop GP, Hindriks FR, Vonk R. Enterohepatic circulation in the rat. Gastroenterology 1985; 88: 403411.
  • 37
    Roda A, Hofmann AF, Mysels KJ. The influence of bile salt structure on self-association in aqueous solutions. J Biol Chem 1983; 258: 63626370.
  • 38
    Sung JV, Shaffer EA, Lam K, Rususka I, Costerton JW. Hydrophobic bile salt inhibits bacterial adhesion on biliary stent material. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 9991006.
  • 39
    Schwarzenberg S, Bundy M. Ursodeoxycholic acid modifies gut-derived endotoxemia in neonatal rats. Pediatr Res 1993; 35: 214217.
  • 40
    Kocsar LT, Bertok L, Varteresz V. Effect of bile acids on the intestinal absorption of endotoxin in rats. J Bacteriol 1969; 100: 220223.
  • 41
    Rimola A, García-Tsao G, Navasa M, Piddock LJ, Planas R, Bernard B, Inadomi JM. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. International Ascites Club. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 142153.
  • 42
    Aparicio JR, Such J, Pascual S, Arroyo A, Plazas J, Girona E, Gutiennez A, et al. Development of quinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli in stools of patients with cirrhosis undergoing norfloxacin prophylaxis: clinical consequences. J Hepatol 1999; 31: 277283.
  • 43
    Ortiz J, Vila MC, Soriano G, Miñana J, Gana J, Mireus B, Novella MT, et al. Infections caused by Escherichia coli resistant to norfloxacin in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Hepatology 1999; 29: 10641069.
  • 44
    Pérez-Páramo M, Muñoz J, Albillos A, Freire I, Portero F, Santos M, Ortiz-Berrocal J. Effect of propranolol on the factors promoting bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Hepatology 2000; 31: 4348.
  • 45
    Wysowski DK, Corken A, Gallo-Torres H, Talarico L, Rodríguez EM. Postmarketing reports of QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia in association with cisapride and Food and Drug Administration regulatory actions. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 16981703.
    Direct Link:
  • 46
    García-Pagán JC, Villanueva C, Vila MC, Albillos A, Genescá J, Ruiz del Arbol L, Planas R, et al. Isosorbide mononitrate in the prevention of first variceal bleed in patients who cannot receive β-blockers. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 908914.
  • 47
    Ricci P, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Jorgensen RA, Lindor KD. Adjuvant cholylsarocosine during ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 12921295.
  • 48
    Gruy-Kapral C, Little KH, Fordtran JS, Meziere TL, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy for short-bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 1521.
  • 49
    Ricci P, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Jorgensen RA, Rollan Dickson E, Lindor KD. Adjuvant cholylsarcosine during ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 12921295.
  • 50
    LaRusso NF, Szezepanik PA, Hofmann AF, Coffin SB. Effect of deoxycholic acid ingestion on bile acid metabolism and biliary lipid secretion in normal subjects. Gastroenterology 1977; 72: 132140.