Liver transplants in many animal models are unusual because often they are not rejected even when transplanted across complete major histocompatibility complex barriers without immunosuppression. Their paradoxical behavior is even more obvious when the immune mechanism of acceptance is examined. Instead of acceptance resulting from a lack of immune response to the graft, the opposite occurs, and there is an unusual extensive increase in immune activation in acceptance compared with rejection. This abnormal extensive immune activation is driven by donor leukocytes transferred with the liver and results in death of the recipient cells that would normally reject the transplant. Some forms of immunosuppression inhibit this activation-associated liver transplant tolerance. The significance of these findings and possible means to design future treatment protocols for clinical transplantation that optimize management of liver transplant recipients are discussed.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.