Objective— To determine the most effective and reliable method for progressive attenuation of single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs.
Study Design— The effects of the four treatments on femoral vein diameter and histology were compared with controls.
Animals— Fourteen healthy adult dogs.
Methods— Twenty-eight canine femoral veins were subjected to sham surgery (4), partial attenuation using silk (5), cellophane banding (6), ameroid constrictor implantation (5), and intravascular thrombogenic coils (8). Changes in vein diameter were evaluated at weekly intervals using venography. After 6 weeks, the dogs were humanely euthanatized, and histopathology was performed on the femoral veins.
Results— Only cellophane and ameroid constrictors produced progressive and permanent vein attenuation. Ameroid constrictors produced complete occlusion within 14 days in four of five veins and by 21 days in the fifth vein. Cellophane banding produced slow progressive (but not complete) attenuation in five of six veins. Complete occlusion was demonstrated in four of eight veins after thrombogenic coil implantation; however, recanalization occurred in all but one dog. Perivascular silk did not produce significant progressive attenuation.
Conclusions— Ameroid constrictors produced rapid occlusion of femoral veins. Cellophane banding resulted in slower attenuation. Thrombogenic coils produced attenuation, but this was not sustained in many cases. Silk did not promote ongoing attenuation.
Clinical Relevance— Both ameroid constrictor implantation and cellophane banding show promise for progressive attenuation of single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs. Because rapid occlusion was seen with ameroid constrictors, however, cellophane banding maybe a safer technique in animals with increased hepatic vascular resistance. Further evaluation of both treatments in clinical cases is warranted.