Objective— To determine the effect of osteotomy angle, reduction technique, and tibial plateau rotation angle on angular and rotational limb deformities.
Study Design— Geometric comparison using bone models.
Methods— Rotational osteotomies were made in the proximal metaphysis of artificial tibias at 0°, 10°, 20°, −10°, and −20° from perpendicular with respect to either the proximodistal and craniocaudal tibial axes. Negative-numbered angles represented osteotomies made from distal to proximal or caudal to cranial. Changes in tibial angulation and torsion were measured using a 3-dimensional digitizing instrument at tibial plateau rotation angles from 0° to 30° at 5° increments. Two osteotomy reduction techniques were used: complete osteotomy reduction and alignment of the medial cortex. The mean of 5 measurements of torsional and angular tibial deformity for each of the 9 osteotomy orientations in each reduction technique group was obtained.
Results— All had increasing angular and rotational deformity as tibial plateau rotation angle increased. In the medially aligned cortex group, all tibias had valgus deformity, and 8 of 9 tibias were internally rotated. In the reduced osteotomy group, minimal angular deformity was seen in tibias with osteotomy variation along the proximodistal axis; however, tibias with osteotomy variation along the craniocaudal axis had angular deformity ranging from 6.0° of varus deformity to 14.3° of valgus deformity. Rotational deformity was affected similarly by osteotomy variation along either axis. Reduction technique had greater affect on angular and rotational deformity than osteotomy angle variation.
Clinical Relevance— These results suggest that osteotomy reduction may play a greater role in angular and rotational deformity than osteotomy angle, although extreme osteotomy angles should be avoided. To decrease the severity of deformity, we recommend that the osteotomy be made perpendicular to the craniocaudal and proximodistal axes and be completely reduced with less regard for alignment of the medial cortex.