• Allozyme diversity;
  • Campanulaceae;
  • conservation genetics;
  • Hanabusaya asiatica;
  • isolation by distance;
  • spatial genetic structure

Abstract: Hanabusaya asiatica (Nakai) Nakai (Campanulaceae), a bee- pollinated, perennial herb, is restricted to the mountainous regions of the eastern-central Korean peninsula. Allozyme analyses for 348 individuals assessed the levels of genetic diversity for five populations. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were also used to examine the spatial distribution of allozyme polymorphisms. The species maintains high levels of allozyme diversity (HeS = 0.217) and it exhibits low allozyme differentiation among populations (GST = 0.132) compared with other endemics (mean He = 0.096, GST = 0.248). There is an apparent pattern of isolation by distance among populations. These results suggest that H. asiatica is at a genetic equilibrium. A considerable deficit in numbers of heterozygotes suggests mating among relatives in populations. At least three populations of H. asiatica should be sampled or conserved to capture or maintain > 99 % of the genetic diversity in the species as a whole. Within local populations, individuals are distributed in a structured, isolation by distance, manner. Approximate genetic patch width in the populations of H. asiatica examined is 5 - 8 m. For conservation purposes, it is suggested that, in general, the sampling of H. asiatica should be conducted at intervals in order to efficiently sample the genetic diversity across an entire population.