Abstract: The cytoskeleton, which mainly consists of microtubules (MTs) and actin microfilaments (MFs), plays various significant roles that are indispensable for eukaryotic viability, including determination of cell shape, cell movement, nuclear division, and cytokinesis. In animal cells, MFs appear to be of more importance than MTs, except for spindle formation in nuclear division. In contrast, higher plants have a rigid cell wall around their cells, and have thus evolved elegant systems of MTs to control the direction of cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) deposited in the cell wall, and to divide centrifugally in a physically limited space. Dynamic changes in MTs during cell cycle progression in higher plant cells have been observed over several decades, including cortical MTs (CMTs) during interphase, preprophase bands (PPBs) from late G2 phase to prophase, spindles from prometaphase to anaphase, and phragmoplasts at telophase. The MFs also show some changes not as obvious as MT dynamics. However, questions regarding the process of formation of these arrays, and the precise mechanisms by which they fulfill their roles, remain unsolved. In this article, we present an outline of the changes in the cytoskeleton based on our studies with highly-synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. Some candidate molecules that could play roles in cytoskeletal dynamics are discussed. We also hope to draw attention to recent attempts at visualization of cytoskeletons with molecular techniques, and to some examples of genetic approaches in this field.