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This study tested hypotheses that locus of causality attributions for the academic performance of others are influenced by whether the other is a specific individual, or a “typical” other, and whether the other is similar or dissimilar to self. The research was carried out in two studies. Study 1 entailed development of two scales to measure perceptions of interpersonal similarity: 254 Australian undergraduates rated their similarity to either a specific other or to “typical” other students. In Study 2, 332 subjects completed one of the 16-item scales developed in Study 1, along with Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and self-attribution and other-attribution versions of the Multidimensional Multi-attribution Causation Scale (MMCS). Results showed that attributions for the academic performance of others were strongly affected by whether the other was perceived to be similar or dissimilar to self, especially when the other was a specific individual. In particular, causal attributions for similar specific others were more favourable than attributions for self.