Measures of self-esteem and attribution for future success or failure at a forthcoming examination were obtained for 241 Filipino university students. Analysis of variance indicated that the high self-esteem subjects were significantly more likely than the low self-esteem subjects to perceive their possible success as due to internal causes and to attribute possible success more to internal causes than they did possible failure. Low self-esteem subjects did not differ significantly in their attribution for success and failure. Rather than supporting either self-enhancement or self-consistency theory for the low self-esteem group the data suggest that these subjects may fail to internalize success to the same degree as the high self-esteem subjects. A cross-cultural explanation of this apparent trend is suggested.