Modelling various sculptures in the Cretaceous bivalve Inoceramus hobetsensis



The geometry of the external shell sculpture in the Late Cretaceous inoceramid bivalve Inoceramus hobetsensis Nagao & Matsumoto, 1939 was studied both empirically and theoretically. A large sample, collected from the Upper Cretaceous of Hokkaido, Japan, shows remarkably high intraspecific variation in the shell sculptural pattern. Quasi-commarginal ribs, slightly oblique to the external growth increments, occur in some specimens. These sculptures are commonly irregular in strength and spacing, and their features are successfully modelled by computer simulations when the commarginal ribs are superposed with nearly concentric divaricate rib. Computer models indicate that the divergent sculpture element, often found in other inoceramids, was present throughout the evolution of I. hobetsensis and was developing in the evolutionary lineage from I. hobetsensis nonsulcatus to I. hobetsensis hobetsensis, although it was only weakly expressed. The results also suggest that some apparently distinct sculptural patterns of I. hobetsensis are the result of minor changes in the morphogenetic program.