From the fluvial Old Red Sandstone (ORS) of the Lower to Middle Devonian Wood Bay Formation (NW-Spitsbergen), a diverse trace fossil assemblage, including two new ichnotaxa, is described: Svalbardichnus trilobus igen. n., isp. n. is interpreted as the three-lobed resting trace of an early phyllocarid crustacean (Rhinocarididae). Cruziana polaris isp. n. yields morphological details that point towards a trilobite origin. This occurence of presumably marine trace makers in a fluvial red bed sequence raises the question of whether we are dealing with marine ingressions that are not sedimentologically expressed, with homeomorphy, or with an adaptation of marine groups to non-marine environments.