St. John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.
Recent advances in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy
Article first published online: 29 MAR 2007
Volume 95, Issue 10, pages 1157–1164, October 2006
How to Cite
Dekelbab, B. H. and Sperling, M. A. (2006), Recent advances in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. Acta Paediatrica, 95: 1157–1164. doi: 10.1080/08035250600640414
- Issue published online: 29 MAR 2007
- Article first published online: 29 MAR 2007
- (Received 16 December 2005; revised 14 February 2006; accepted 16 February 2006)
- KATP channel
Hyperinsulinemia-induced hypoglycemia is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in adults, children, and infants. Our understanding of the disorders responsible for this type of hypoglycemia has been increasing due to the recent discoveries in the molecular and biochemical regulation of insulin secretion. In this article, we review the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of disorders that cause hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. We highlight the distinction between the diffuse and focal forms of the disease, especially the promising results with 18F-L-dopa positive emission tomography (PET) scanning for preoperative localization and distinction to guide the extent of surgical removal of pancreatic tissue that may result in cure rather than persistence of disturbed carbohydrate metabolism.
Conclusion: Despite all these discoveries, much remains to be learned, as currently about one third of infants with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia have no identifiable cause.