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Are Women at Greater Risk? An Examination of Alcohol-Related Consequences and Gender


Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 13244. E-mail:


Men typically drink more than women; however, women achieve higher BACs (blood alcohol concentration) than men at equivalent consumption levels. This study investigated the unique effect of gender on individual alcohol problems by controlling both consumption and intoxication in a sample of 1,331 undergraduate drinkers. Gender independently influenced the risk of experiencing seven of nine negative consequences: (a) being female increased risk for tolerance, blacking out, passing out, drinking after promising not to, and getting injured; (b) being male increased risk for damaging property and going to school drunk. Gender patterns should be explored in a wider set of alcohol-related problems.