The acute influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule expression on monocytes and neutrophils and on circulating adhesion molecule levels in vivo

Authors

  • D. A. Scott,

    Corresponding author
    1. Dental Clinical Research, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • D. H. Todd,

    1. Oral Medicine and Pathology, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • P. Y. Coward,

    1. Dental Clinical Research, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • R. F. Wilson,

    1. Dental Clinical Research, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • E. W. Odell,

    1. Oral Medicine and Pathology, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • R. N. Poston,

    1. Experimental Pathology, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • J. P. Matthews,

    1. Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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  • R. M. Palmer

    1. Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK
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David Scott, Dental Clinical Research, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Dental Institute, Floor 17, Guy's Tower, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK. Tel: + 44 171 955 2686; fax: + 44 171 955 4951; e-mail: david.2.scott@kcl.ac.uk

Abstract

Soluble adhesion molecules have been reported as risk markers of a wide range of human diseases and specific adhesion molecules may play a direct role in pathological processes. Serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is known to be significantly elevated in smokers compared to non-smokers. We examined the acute effects of smoking a standard 2R1 research cigarette on the serum concentration of sICAM-1 and other circulating adhesion molecules (sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sVCAM-1 and sPECAM-1) in heavy smokers (serum cotinine ≥ 100 ng/ml), light smokers (serum cotinine ≤ 60 ng/ml) and non-smokers (serum cotinine ≤ 10 ng/ml) by ELISA. Adhesion molecule expression on the cell surface of monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood was examined by flow cytometry. The sICAM-1 concentration directly correlated to serum cotinine concentration (p= 0.047) and nicotine load (p= 0.033) in smokers and was significantly elevated compared to non-smokers (p= 0.037). Other than a decrease in the concentration of sP-selectin over 1 hour regardless of smoking, no significant temporal alterations of any adhesion molecule were observed following the smoking experience or in the non-smoking control group. No significant difference in surface expression of ICAM-1, CD18, PECAM-1 or L-selectin on peripheral monocytes or neutrophils was observed over a 1-hour period following smoking. These data suggest that the elevated concentration of sICAM-1 in smokers is not due to an immediate effect of smoking.

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