The aims of the guidelines are to help assess the evidence for palliation surgery in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The guidelines are classified in accordance with the location of the primary lesion, i.e. intrahepatic, hilar, and distal. They are based on comprehensive literature surveys, including results from randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, and cohort, prospective, and retrospective studies. Intrahepatic CCA, i.e. resection of lymph-node-positive tumors and R1/R2 resections have not been shown to provide survival benefit: Evidence levels: 2b, 4; Recommendation grade C. Hilar CCA: R1 resection is justified as a very efficient palliation. Non-surgical biliary stenting is the first choice of palliative biliary drainage. Distal CCA: Resection of lymph-node-positive tumours and R1/R2 resections should be performed. Non-surgical stenting is regarded as the first choice of palliation for patients with short life expectancy. For patients with longer projected survival, surgical bypass should be considered. Palliative resections have a relevant beneficial impact on the outcome of patients with distal and hilar CCA. Non-surgical stenting is the first choice of palliative biliary drainage for patients with hilar CCA and for those with distal CCA and short life expectancy. For patients with distal CCA and longer projected survival, surgical bypass should be considered.