• 1
    Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 2004; 5(Suppl 1)4104.
  • 2
    Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, Layden J, Carnes BA, Brody J, et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(11)113845.
  • 3
    Philipson, T, Dai, C, Helmchen, L, Variyam, J. The economics of obesity: a report on the workshop held at USDA's Economic Research Service. Electronic publication from the Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program: Economic Research Service; May. 2004.
  • 4
    Finkelstein EA, Ruhm CJ, Kosa KM. Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Annu Rev Public Health 2005; 26: 23957.
  • 5
    Philipson TJ, Posner RA. The long-run growth in obesity as a function of technological change. Perspect Biol Med 2003; 46(3 Suppl)S87107.
  • 6
    Bell EA, Rolls BJ. Energy density of foods affects energy intake across multiple levels of fat content in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73(6)10108.
  • 7
    Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Thorwart ML. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70(4)44855.
  • 8
    Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001; 357(9255)5058.
  • 9
    Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76(6)120713.
  • 10
    Kral TV, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Does nutrition information about the energy density of meals affect food intake in normal-weight women?. Appetite 2002; 39(2)13745.
  • 11
    Lanningham-Foster L, Nysse LJ, Levine JA. Labor saved, calories lost: the energetic impact of domestic labor-saving devices. Obes Res 2003; 11(10)117881.
  • 12
    Cutler D, Glaeser E, Shapiro J. Why have Americans become more obese?. The economics of obesity: a report on the workshop held at USDA's Economic Research Service: Economic Research Service, T Philipson, C Dai, L Helmchen, J Variyam, 2004.
  • 13
    Drewnowski A, Darmon N. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(1 Suppl)26573S.
  • 14
    Entertainment Software Association. Essential facts about the computer and video game industry: Entertainment Software Association; 2005, [cited 2006 Jan 30]. Available from: URL:, http:www.theesa.comfiles2005EssentialFacts.pdf.
  • 15
    Advertising Age. Advertising Age's special report: profiles supplement. 50th annual 100 leading national advertisers: Advertising Age; 2005, June 27 [cited 2006 Jan 30]. Available from: URL:, http:www.adage.comimagesrandomlna2005.pdf.
  • 16
    Leggett, D. The global market review of car sales – forecasts to 2009. 4th ed. Worcestershire: Aroq limited; 2005, [cited 2006 Jan 30]. Available from: URL: http:www.just-auto.comstoresamplesaroq_global_car_forecasts_2004ed_sample.pdf.
  • 17
    Computer Industry Almanac Inc. Press Release: PC's in-use surpassed 820 million in 2004. PC's in-use will top 1B in 2007. Arlington: Computer Industry Almanac Inc; 2005, March 9 [cited 2006 Jan 30]. Available from: URL:, http:www.c-i-a.compr0305.htm.
  • 18
    International Bicycle Fund. Bicycle statistics: usage, production, sales, import, export: International Bicycle Fund; 2006, [cited 2006 Jan 30]. Available from: URL:, http:www.ibike.orglibrarystatistics.htm.
  • 19
    Gallo AE. Food advertising in the United States. America's eating habits: Changes and consequences, E Frazao. ERS, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C 1997.
  • 20
    Tsai AG, Wadden TA. Systematic review: an evaluation of major commercial weight loss programs in the United States. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142(1)5666.
  • 21
    Hardus PM, van Vuuren CL, Crawford D, Worsley A. Public perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27(12)146571.
  • 22
    O'Dea, JA. Body image and nutritional status among adolescents and adults-a review of the literature. Aust J Nutr Diet 1995;52.
  • 23
    Sen A. Wellbeing, agency and freedom: the Dewey lectures 1984. J Philos 1985; 82(4)169221.
  • 24
    Hurley J. Welfarism, extra welfarism and evaluative economic analysis in the health sector. Health, health care and health economics: perspectives on distribution, M Barer, T Getzen, G Stoddart. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester 1998; 37396.
  • 25
    Richardson J, McKie J, Olsen J. Welfarism or non-welfarism? Public preferences for willingness to pay versus health maximisation. Working Paper 157. Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Melbourne 2005.
  • 26
    Rice T. The economics of health reconsidered 2nd ed. Health Administration Press, Chicago 2002.
  • 27
    Oates C, Blades M, Gunter B. Children and television advertising: When do they understand persuasive intent?. J Cons Behav 2001; 1(3)23845.
  • 28
    Kotz K, Story M. Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations?. J Am Diet Assoc 1994; 94(11)1296300.
  • 29
    Galst JP, White MA. The unhealthy persuader: The reinforcing value of television and children's purchase-influencing attempts at the supermarket. Child Dev 1976; 47: 108996.
  • 30
    Goodin, RE. 2000, ‘Preference Failures’, Paper presented to. the Conference on ‘Fairness and Goodness’, sponsored by the Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy, World Health Organization, 1115, March, 2000, Mimeo, Philosophy Program, Research School of Social Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra.
  • 31
    O'Donoghue T, Rabin M. The economics of immediate gratification. J Behav Decis Mak 2000; 13(2)23350.
  • 32
    Bator F. The anatomy of market failure. Q J Econ 1958; 72: 35179.
  • 33
    McCarthy M. The economics of obesity. Lancet 2004; 364(9452)216970.
  • 34
    Swinburn BA, Caterson I, Seidell JC, James WP. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr 2004; 7(1A)12346.
  • 35
    Hastings G, Stead M, McDermott L, Forsyth A, MacKintosh A, Raynor M, et al. Review of the research on the effects of food promotion to children. Centre for Social Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow 2003.
  • 36
    United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20, November, 1989, [cited 2006 Jan 30]. Available from: URL:, http:www.ohchr.orgenglishaboutpublicationsdocsabc-annexes.pdf.
  • 37
    Tickner J, Raffensperger C, Myers N. The Precautionary Principle in Action: a handbook. Lowell Centre for Sustainable Production, Science and Environmental Health Network, Lowell 1999.
  • 38
    Lobstein T, Dibb S. Evidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweight. Obes Rev 2005; 6(3)2038.
  • 39
    Goldberg ME. A quasi-experiment assessing the effectiveness of TV advertising directed to children. J Market Res 1990; 27(4)44554.
  • 40
    Brownell K. The chronicling of obesity: growing awareness of its social, economic, and politics contexts. J Health politics 2005; 5: 95564.
  • 41
    Dibb S. A spoonful of sugar: television food advertising aimed at children: An international comparative survey. Consumers International, UK 1996.
  • 42
    Hawkes C. Marketing food to children: the global regulatory environment. World Health Organisation. 2004.
  • 43
    Crawford I, Leicester A, Windmeijer F. The “fat tax”: economic incentives to reduce obesity. Institute for Fiscal Studies, London 2003.
  • 44
    Guo X, Popkin BM, Mroz TA, Zhai F. Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China. J Nutr 1999; 129(5)9941001.