This article outlines some of the biggest economic issues threatening the long-term survival of American farming and ranching. In general, the threats are derived from the intersection of global and local scales of decision making. International economic development, personal finance decisions, and political, social, and environmental issues are all part of the portfolio of threats. At the top of the list of threats is the bottom line. Profit margins are being squeezed, causing producers to diversify out of agriculture to earn sufficient returns to enable them to remain in agriculture as long as possible. American policy is expected to allow agriculture to continue shrinking because (1) the sector is losing its comparative advantage, and (2) it may become a deadweight loss to the economy.