To document polyp formation in the sinus mucosa, the authors of this study subjected New Zealand white rabbits to different modes of manipulation intended to induce inflammation of the maxillary sinus. These manipulations included a combination of bacterial infection and mechanical trauma, the deposition of agarose into the sinus cavity, and the deposition of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, a chemotactic peptide, into the sinus cavity. A majority of animals developed polyps, which were examined by light and electron microscopy.
Polyp formation appears to involve epithelial disruption and the migration of immature branching epithelium. While part of the migrating epithelium eventually covers the mucosal defect, other branches spread into the underlying connective tissue, where intraepithelial microcavities with a differentiated, ciliated lining are formed. Fusing cavities separate the developing polyp body from the adjacent mucosa. With the described method, mucosal polyps can be induced with high reproducibility.