The development of the 12-item Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test(CC-SIT), based upon items from the University of Pen.sylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), is described. In developing this test, the authors initially selected UPSIT items that are familiar to most persons from North American, European, South American, and Asian cultures. The CC-SIT was then administered to 198 people ranging in age from 5 to 96 years, and the test scores were compared to analogous items from UPSITs administered to 198 age-, sex-, race-, and smoking-habit-matched control subjects. Since the pattern of test scores did not differ for the two groups, the authors developed normative data for the 12-item test using equivalent UPSIT items sampled from a database containing UPSIT scores for 3760 subjects. Norms are provided for determining the percentile ranks of a given patient's score as a function of age and gender. The CC-SIT provides, for the first time, a self-administered means for reliably assessing olfactory function in less than 5 minutes.