SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Cartilage;
  • electroforming;
  • streaming potential;
  • shape change

Abstract

Objectives: This study describes the process of tissue electroforming and how shape changes in cartilage can be produced by the application of direct current (DC). The dependence of shape change on voltage and application time is explored. Study Design: Basic investigation using ex vivo porcine septal cartilage grafts and electromechanical cartilage deformation focused on development of a new surgical technique. Methods: Uniform flat porcine nasal septal cartilage specimens were mechanically deformed between two semicircular aluminum electrodes. DC current was applied to establish charge separation and electrical streaming potential. Voltage (0–3.5 V) and application time (0–5 minutes) were varied. Shape change was measured, and shape retention was calculated using analytic representation. The effect of the direction of applied current on shape change was evaluated by switching the polarities of electrodes and using parameters of 0 to 5.5 V and 5 minutes. Temperature during reshaping was monitored with a thermocouple, and surface features were evaluated using light microscopy. Results: Reshaped specimen demonstrated mechanical stability similar to native cartilage tissue. Shape retention strongly correlated with increasing voltage and application time. Only a small current (<0.1 A) through the tissue was measured. Temperature change was less than 2°C during electroforming, suggesting that electroforming likely results from some nonthermal mechanisms. Surface features indicated that electrodeposition may occur depending on electrode material and magnitude of the applied voltage. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that cartilage can be reshaped through the process we have described as “electroforming” by generating intrinsic differences in charge separation with negligible heat production.