Chemokines are small proteins involved in the direction of migration of immune cells both during normal homeostasis and inflammation. Chemokines have been implicated in the pathology of many different inflammatory disorders and are therefore appealing therapeutic targets. Using a chemokine/chemokine receptor-specific gene expression profiling system of 67 genes, the authors have determined the expression profile of chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in the rectum of colitic mice and in mice that have been protected fromcolitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. In mice protected from colitis, the authors found down regulation of the mRNA expression of the inflammatory chemokine receptors CCR1 and CXCR3 and their ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL5, and CCL7. Also the transcripts for CCR9, CCL25, CCL17, and CXCL1 are found down regulated in protected compared with colitic animals. In addition, the authors' results suggest that CCL20 is used by CCR6+ regulatory T cells in the complex process of controlling colitis because transcripts for this chemokine were expressed to a higher level in protected animals. The chemokine pathways identified in the present study may be of importance for the development of new targets for anti-inflammatory treatment strategies in human inflammatory bowel disease.