Image-Guidance for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Authors

  • Marvin P. Fried MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. From the Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, U.S.A.
    • Send correspondence to Marvin P. Fried, MD, FACS, Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3400 Bainbridge Avenue, 3rd Floor, Bronx, NY 10467
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  • Sanjay R. Parikh MD,

    1. From the Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, U.S.A.
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  • Babak Sadoughi MD

    1. From the Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, U.S.A.
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  • Editor's Note: This Manuscript was accepted for publication February 4, 2008.

Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis: Image-guided surgery (IGS) is a critical tool. However, its clinical validity remains controversial. A review of indications and a consensus based on literature are presented.

Methods: Literature review.

Results: Traditional indications remain valid. Novel applications have emerged, and the reliability of IGS has been consistently endorsed. Although evidence is based on scattered reports and expert opinions, the use of IGS in approved instances is regarded as the state of the art.

Conclusions: IGS is reliable, and a scientific validation of outcomes would entail unethical strategies. An expanding spectrum of indications is anticipated, although IGS does not replace proper training.

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