Objectives/Hypothesis: Image-guided surgery (IGS) is a critical tool. However, its clinical validity remains controversial. A review of indications and a consensus based on literature are presented.
Methods: Literature review.
Results: Traditional indications remain valid. Novel applications have emerged, and the reliability of IGS has been consistently endorsed. Although evidence is based on scattered reports and expert opinions, the use of IGS in approved instances is regarded as the state of the art.
Conclusions: IGS is reliable, and a scientific validation of outcomes would entail unethical strategies. An expanding spectrum of indications is anticipated, although IGS does not replace proper training.