Objectives/Hypothesis: Rare diseases must be diagnosed with great caution, so we present this case to familiarize clinicians with the presentation and treatment of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone, a rare disease.
Study Design: Case report and review of the literature.
Methods: We report one case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone which presented with upper midline neck mass. In addition, we review the literature published in English regarding chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone.
Results: Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone is a rare disease of which only 14 cases have been reported until now. Patients with this disease have no sexual or racial preponderance, and most presented with a mass in the upper neck which has splotchy calcification in radiologic imaging without enhancement. The preferred treatment is wide excision.
Conclusion: Because chondrosarcoma have indolent growth, are locally noninvasive, and appear encapsulated during operation, they may be mistaken for a benign mass and conservatively resected. On the other hand, incomplete tumor resection may lead to recurrence, which is associated with increased risk of dedifferentiation and histologic grading of tumor. Surgeons should approach this surgery with caution.