Chapter 2.4 Powder and related techniques: electron and neutron techniques

Mathematical, physical and chemical tables

First Online Edition (2006)

Part 2. Diffraction geometry and its practical realization

  1. J. M. Cowley1,
  2. A. W. Hewat2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000579

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Cowley, J. M. and Hewat, A. W. 2006. Powder and related techniques: electron and neutron techniques. International Tables for Crystallography. C:2:2.4:80–83.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504, USA

  2. 2

    Institut Laue–Langevin, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 156X, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX, France

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2006


In the first part of this chapter, methods for obtaining powder diffraction patterns using electron microscopy are described. The effects of preferred orientation are considered and the kinematical and two-beam approximations for the intensities of electron diffraction are described. Factors that have to be considered when using powder electron diffraction techniques for crystal-size analysis and the identification of unknown phases are noted. In the second part of the chapter, powder neutron diffraction is described. Advantages of powder neutron diffraction include the ability to collect data from samples at high or low temperatures or as a function of pressure. The different types of diffractometer in use are discussed and optimal experimental conditions for different kinds of experiments are considered.


  • crystal-size analysis;
  • electron microscopy;
  • neutron diffraction;
  • phase identification;
  • powder diffraction;
  • powder-pattern geometry;
  • powder-pattern intensities;
  • preferred orientation