Chapter 2.6 Small-angle techniques

Mathematical, physical and chemical tables

First Online Edition (2006)

Part 2. Diffraction geometry and its practical realization

  1. O. Glatter1,
  2. R. May2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000581

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Glatter, O. and May, R. 2006. Small-angle techniques. International Tables for Crystallography. C:2:2.6:89–112.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz, Austria

  2. 2

    Institut Laue–Langevin, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 156X, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX, France

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2006


Small-angle X-ray scattering is discussed in the first part of this chapter. After a description of the general principles of the technique, small-angle scattering by monodisperse and polydisperse systems is considered. Instrumentation, data interpretation and the use of simulations and model calculations are also discussed. In the second part of the chapter, neutron small-angle scattering is described, placing the emphasis on specific differences between the use of X-rays and neutrons. These concern means of contrast variation (by labelling the matrix and/or the scattering object), magnetic and nuclear-spin dependent scattering, and the use of bulky sample environments. Specific techniques using the various means of creating contrast are presented, in particular label triangulation and triple isotopic replacement. Neutron small-angle scattering data can easily be put on an absolute scale, and radiation damage is not an issue.


  • absolute calibration of SANS data;
  • absolute intensity;
  • block collimation;
  • Bonse–Hart camera;
  • cameras;
  • concentration effects;
  • contrast;
  • data evaluation;
  • dense systems in SANS;
  • detector-response correction in SANS;
  • direct structure analysis;
  • distance distribution functions;
  • elimination of concentration effects;
  • flat particles;
  • geometry of SANS;
  • high-resolution experiments;
  • hollow particles;
  • homogeneous particles;
  • incoherent multiple scattering;
  • incoherent scattering;
  • indirect transformation method;
  • inhomogeneous particles;
  • inner surface area;
  • instrumental broadening;
  • interparticle interference;
  • Kratky cameras;
  • label triangulation;
  • labelling;
  • lamellar particles;
  • magnetic properties;
  • maximum dimension of a particle;
  • model calculations in SAXS;
  • model fitting in SANS;
  • monodisperse systems;
  • multi-component complex, label triangulation;
  • multipole expansions;
  • particle size;
  • particles;
  • polydisperse systems;
  • radial distribution function;
  • resolution errors;
  • rod-like particles;
  • SAXS;
  • scattering intensities;
  • simulations in SAXS;
  • single-particle scattering;
  • small-angle X-ray scattering;
  • small-angle cameras;
  • specific isotopic labelling;
  • spherical symmetry;
  • spin-contrast variation;
  • structure analysis;
  • triple isotopic replacement