Chapter 1.1 Symbols and terms used in Parts 1–4

Subperiodic groups

Second Online Edition (2010)

Part 1. Subperiodic group tables: frieze-group, rod-group and layer-group types

  1. V. Kopský1,
  2. D. B. Litvin2

Published Online: 1 JUN 2010

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000782

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Kopský, V. and Litvin, D. B. 2010. Symbols and terms used in Parts 1–4. International Tables for Crystallography. E:1:1.1:2–4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Physics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji, and Institute of Physics, The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, PO Box 24, 180 40 Prague 8, Czech Republic

  2. 2

    Department of Physics, Penn State Berks Campus, The Pennsylvania State University, PO Box 7009, Reading, PA 19610–6009, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JUN 2010


In this chapter the crystallographic symbols and terms that occur in the tables and the text of Parts 1 to 4 of this volume are defined. These symbols and definitions follow those given in Part 1 of Volume A of International Tables for Crystallography.


  • crystallography;
  • subperiodic groups;
  • rod groups;
  • layer groups;
  • frieze groups;
  • symmetry planes;
  • symmetry axes;
  • symmetry elements;
  • nomenclature