Chapter 1.4 Perspectives for the future

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 1. Introduction

  1. E. Arnold1,
  2. M. G. Rossmann2,
  3. D. M. Himmel1,
  4. J. C. H. Spence3,
  5. S. Sun2

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000807

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Arnold, E., Rossmann, M. G., Himmel, D. M., Spence, J. C. H. and Sun, S. 2012. Perspectives for the future. International Tables for Crystallography. F:1:1.4:39–44.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Biomolecular Crystallography Laboratory, CABM & Rutgers University, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854–5638, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907–1392, USA

  3. 3

    Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012


Crystallography has played an important role in helping to advance science and the human endeavour in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. This chapter describes what we can expect to see in the future of crystallography, related fields and science in general, as well as how budding new technologies and breakthroughs in these fields may impact both the sciences and the world at large. The chapter is divided into general comments by each of the editors, followed by perspectives on the future roles of the X-ray free-electron laser and cryo-electron microscopy in structure determination.


  • macromolecular crystallography;
  • X-ray free-electron lasers;
  • electron microscopy;
  • structural biology