Chapter 10.1 Introduction to cryocrystallography

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 10. Cryocrystallography

  1. H. Hope1,
  2. S. Parkin2

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000827

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Hope, H. and Parkin, S. 2012. Introduction to cryocrystallography. International Tables for Crystallography. F:10:10.1:241–248.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616–5295, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012


A general introduction to cryocrystallography is provided. The chapter covers crystal mounting, cooling of biocrystals, principles of cooling equipment and frost prevention. Operational considerations, such as dual-stream instruments, electrically heated nozzles, temperature calibration and transfer of crystals to difractometers, are also described.


  • cryocrystallography;
  • crystal mounting;
  • data collection;
  • frost prevention;
  • ice formation;
  • radiation damage