Chapter 18.8 ARP/wARP – automated model building and refinement

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 18. Refinement

  1. V. S. Lamzin1,
  2. A. Perrakis2,
  3. K. S. Wilson3

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000862

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Lamzin, V. S., Perrakis, A. and Wilson, K. S. 2012. ARP/wARP – automated model building and refinement. International Tables for Crystallography. F:18:18.8:525–528.

Author Information

  1. 1

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg, Germany

  2. 2

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Grenoble Outstation, c/o ILL, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9, France

  3. 3

    Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, England

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012


The ARP/wARP suite enables automated model building and refinement for macromolecular crystallography. It is based on the use of hybrid models integrated with model refinement and reconstruction to provide a unified approach. The ARP/wARP protocols are computationally efficient and provide an easy-to-use pipeline for the construction of structures of proteins, polynucleotides, bound ligands and solvent.


  • automated model building;
  • ARP/wARP;
  • refinement