Chapter 21.5 KiNG and kinemages

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 21. Structure validation

  1. V. B. Chen,
  2. J. S. Richardson,
  3. D. C. Richardson

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000883

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Chen, V. B., Richardson, J. S. and Richardson, D. C. 2012. KiNG and kinemages. International Tables for Crystallography. F:21:21.5:688–693.

Author Information

  1. Department of Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012


KiNG and the kinemage interactive three-dimensional graphics it displays are a powerful yet easy to use system for viewing and analysing structures of macromolecules. Kinemages can be used in a variety of ways, from interactive molecular illustrations for teaching or the web, to display of high-dimensional data or detailed structural analysis for research. KiNG also provides a set of crystallographic rebuilding tools, including a novel ‘backrub’ tool for making local, non-disruptive adjustments to protein backbone that couple strongly to side-chain changes, supported by display of electron density, rotamer quality and all-atom contact analysis. KiNG includes a suite of tools for conveniently constructing kinemages from a variety of sources, as well as an extensive set of on-screen editing and drawing functions.


  • KiNG;
  • Molikin;
  • Mage;
  • kinemage;
  • molecular graphics;
  • structure validation