• three-dimensional visualization;
  • structural models;
  • electron densities;
  • computer programs;

A cross-platform program, VESTA, has been developed to visualize both structural and volumetric data in multiple windows with tabs. VESTA represents crystal structures by ball-and-stick, space-filling, polyhedral, wireframe, stick, dot-surface and thermal-ellipsoid models. A variety of crystal-chemical information is extractable from fractional coordinates, occupancies and oxidation states of sites. Volumetric data such as electron and nuclear densities, Patterson functions, and wavefunctions are displayed as isosurfaces, bird's-eye views and two-dimensional maps. Isosurfaces can be colored according to other physical quantities. Translucent isosurfaces and/or slices can be overlapped with a structural model. Collaboration with external programs enables the user to locate bonds and bond angles in the `graphics area', simulate powder diffraction patterns, and calculate site potentials and Madelung energies. Electron densities determined experimentally are convertible into their Laplacians and electronic energy densities.