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Keywords:

  • ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS);
  • Advanced Photon Source (APS)

The design and operation of a versatile ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) instrument at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory are presented. The instrument is optimized for the high brilliance and low emittance of an APS undulator source. It has angular and energy resolutions of the order of 10−4, accurate and repeatable X-ray energy tunability over its operational energy range from 8 to 18 keV, and a dynamic intensity range of 108 to 109, depending on the configuration. It further offers quantitative primary calibration of X-ray scattering cross sections, a scattering vector range from 0.0001 to 1 Å−1, and stability and reliability over extended running periods. Its operational configurations include one-dimensional collimated (slit-smeared) USAXS, two-dimensional collimated USAXS and USAXS imaging. A robust data reduction and data analysis package, which was developed in parallel with the instrument, is available and supported at the APS.