• two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering;
  • aramid fibers;
  • full pattern fitting

Although the crystal structure in aramid fibers and the relationship between the size and orientation of crystallites and the performance of a material have been explored in detail, the effect of microvoids in an aramid fiber on its performance is still not clear. However, it is known that the mechanical properties depend strongly on the fiber morphology. In the present research, two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering is applied to characterize the microvoids in aramid fibers. Pauw's two-dimensional full pattern fitting method and scattering model have been enhanced by introducing orientation parameters, such as zenith angle distribution and azimuthal angle distribution, and instrumental parameters like point spread function and beam profile function. A series of aramid fibers with different strengths were studied using the new two-dimensional full pattern fitting method to extract the microvoid parameters from the scattering patterns. The results show that the microvoids in the aramid fiber affect the fiber strength directly. The greater the number of spherical microvoids and the larger the ellipsoidal microvoids, the weaker the aramid fiber.