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Keywords:

  • bimorph mirror;
  • Tikhonov regularization;
  • X-ray optics;
  • inverse problem

One of the challenges of tuning bimorph mirrors with many electrodes is that the calculated focusing voltages can be different by more than the safety limit (such as 500 V for the mirrors used at 17-ID at the Advanced Photon Source) between adjacent electrodes. A study of this problem at 17-ID revealed that the inverse problem of the tuning in situ, using X-rays, became ill-conditioned when the number of electrodes was large and the calculated focusing voltages were contaminated with measurement errors. Increasing the number of beamlets during the tuning could reduce the matrix condition number in the problem, but obtaining voltages with variation below the safety limit was still not always guaranteed and multiple iterations of tuning were often required. Applying Tikhonov regularization and using the L-curve criterion for the determination of the regularization parameter made it straightforward to obtain focusing voltages with well behaved variations. Some characteristics of the tuning results obtained using Tikhonov regularization are given in this paper.