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Keywords:

  • ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy;
  • high-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy;
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy;
  • in situ;
  • operando;
  • catalysis

The new instrument for near-ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which has been installed at the MAX II ring of the Swedish synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV Laboratory in Lund is presented. The new instrument, which is based on a SPECS PHOIBOS 150 NAP analyser, is the first to feature the use of retractable and exchangeable high-pressure cells. This implies that clean vacuum conditions are retained in the instrument's analysis chamber and that it is possible to swiftly change between near-ambient and ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. In this way the instrument implements a direct link between ultrahigh-vacuum and in situ studies, and the entire pressure range from ultrahigh-vacuum to near-ambient conditions is available to the user. Measurements at pressures up to 10−5 mbar are carried out in the ultrahigh-vacuum analysis chamber, while measurements at higher pressures are performed in the high-pressure cell. The installation of a mass spectrometer on the exhaust line of the reaction cell offers the users the additional dimension of simultaneous reaction data monitoring. Moreover, the chosen design approach allows the use of dedicated cells for different sample environments, rendering the Swedish ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy instrument a highly versatile and flexible tool.