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Keywords:

  • unilamellar liposome;
  • osmotic stress;
  • water permeability;
  • time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering

Time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to study the structural changes during the osmotic shrinkage of a pharmacologically relevant liposomal drug delivery system. Sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) with a diameter of 100 nm and composed of hydrogenated soy phosphocholine, cholesterol and distearoyl-phosphoethanolamine-PEG 2000 prepared in a salt-free buffer were mixed with a buffered 0.3 M NaCl solution using a stopped flow apparatus. The changes in the liposome size and the bilayer structure were followed by using SAXS with a time resolution of 20 ms. A linear decrease in liposome size is observed during the first ∼4 s of the osmotic shrinkage, which reveals a water permeability value of 0.215 (15) µm s−1. The change in the size of the liposomes upon the osmotic shrinkage is also confirmed by dynamic light scattering. After this initial step, broad correlation peaks appear on the SAXS curves in the q range of the bilayer form factor, which indicates the formation of bi- or oligolamellar structures. Freeze-fracture combined with transmission electron microscopy revealed that lens-shaped liposomes are formed during the shrinkage, which account for the appearance of the quasi-Bragg peaks superimposed on the bilayer form factor. On the basis of these observations, it is proposed that the osmotic shrinkage of SSLs is a two-step process: in the initial step, the liposome shrinks in size, while the area/lipid adapts to the decreased surface area, which is then followed by the deformation of the spherical liposomes into lens-shaped vesicles.