Stability of HAMLET—A kinetically trapped α-lactalbumin oleic acid complex

Authors

  • Jonas Fast,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Cristol Building, Boulder, CO 80309-0215, USA.
    • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Cristol Building, Room 226, Boulder, CO 80309-0215, USA
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  • Ann-Kristin Mossberg,

    1. Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Glycobiology, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
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  • Catharina Svanborg,

    1. Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Glycobiology, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
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  • Sara Linse

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
    • Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden; fax: +46-46-2224543.
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Abstract

The stability toward thermal and urea denaturation was measured for HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and α-lactalbumin, using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry. Under all conditions examined, HAMLET appears to have the same or lower stability than α-lactalbumin. The largest difference is seen for thermal denaturation of the calcium free (apo) forms, where the temperature at the transition midpoint is 15°C lower for apo HAMLET than for apo α-lactalbumin. The difference becomes progressively smaller as the calcium concentration increases. Denaturation of HAMLET was found to be irreversible. Samples of HAMLET that have been renatured after denaturation have lost the specific biological activity toward tumor cells. Three lines of evidence indicate that HAMLET is a kinetic trap: (1) It has lower stability than α-lactalbumin, although it is a complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid; (2) its denaturation is irreversible and HAMLET is lost after denaturation; (3) formation of HAMLET requires a specific conversion protocol.

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