New insight on β-lactoglobulin binding sites by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate fluorescence decay

Authors

  • Maddalena Collini,

    1. Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia and Università di Milano-Bicocca, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy
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  • Laura D'Alfonso,

    1. Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia and Università di Milano-Bicocca, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy
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  • Giancarlo Baldini

    Corresponding author
    1. Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia and Università di Milano-Bicocca, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy
    • Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia and Università di Milano-Bicocca, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy
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Abstract

The fluorescence time decay parameters of the β-lactoglobulin-1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate complex have been investigated under physical and chemical perturbations (2 < pH < 8 and added electrolyte 0 < NaCl < 0.5 M) to obtain new insight on the nature of the protein binding interactions. A double exponential decay of the bound probe lifetime has been confirmed by the presence of a longer component, 11 to 14.5 ns, and a shorter component, 2.5 to 3.5 ns. The two lifetimes are ascribed to different binding modes associated also with different exposure to the solvent; in particular, the longer component is attributed to binding inside the hydrophobic beta barrel, while a “surface” site is suggested for the shorter component. A detailed analysis of the lifetime fractional intensities correlates the binding constants with ionic strength and supports the presence of electrostatic effects at both sites. A Debye–Hückel approach, applied to extrapolate the electrostatic free energy contribution vs. pH at vanishing ionic strength, gives interesting clues on the effective charge felt by the ANS ligands in the proximity of each site. In particular, binding is found to parallel the aspartate and glutamate titrations between pH 3 and pH 4.5; the “surface” site mainly responds to the presence of these local titrating charges while the “internal” site more closely follows the overall protein net charge.

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