Since the passage of federal welfare reform in late 1996, 15 states have passed welfare residency requirements that restrict cash assistance to new migrants, an indication that welfare-induced migration concerns state policy-makers. Models of state welfare policy-making assume that states compete in a ‘race-to-the-bottom’ over the generosity of their welfare policies, where neighboring states continuously reduce benefit levels in reaction to one another. This paper analyzes longitudinal data on individual-level migration among single-parent families and estimates the extent to which these families make interstate moves to states with higher benefit levels. We find that relatively few single-parent households make interstate moves and that welfare benefits are not a significant determinant of them. We discuss the implications of these findings for models of state welfare policy-making.