This research examines whether citizens utilize gender stereotypes to infer candidates' ideological orientations. Analysis of data from the 1988-1990-1992 Pooled Senate Election Study reveals that even after candidates' individuating ideological orientations are taken into account, candidate gender still exerts substantial effects on citizens' perceptions of candidates' ideological orientations. The consequences of gender stereotypes for vote choice are important but differ for Democrats and Republicans. For Democratic female candidates, gender ideological stereotypes increase the distance between female candidates and voters, increasing the likelihood citizens will vote for the Republican opponent, ceteris paribus. For Republican female candidates, gender stereotypes for ideology reduce the distance between them and most voters, thereby increasing their electoral prospects.