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During ASPA's first fifty years (1939–1989), the role of women in the Society evolved from virtual invisibility, to token representation, to major participation. In the 1990s, women's role in ASPA continued to expand. They achieved just about full partnership with male colleagues in the organization's governance and they increased their contributions to ASPA's efforts to support the improvement of theory and practice in public administration through research and scholarship. However, women have not yet achieved parity with their male colleagues in scholarly output. For women to achieve full equality with men in ASPA, they must be better represented in contributions to literature and knowledge in the profession.