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The predominant image of women peace activists in 1960s and 1970s peace and anti–Vietnam War historiography is maternal, in particular drawing on Amy Swerdlow's research on Women Strike for Peace (WSP). This essay analyzes the peace and social justice activism of two single-sex organizations in Chicago: Women for Peace (the Chicago chapter of WSP) and Women Mobilized for Change. These women activists used “women as citizen” and maternal rationales as well as their gender, age, and class to legitimize their activism. Using oral history and organizational sources, this essay also investigates how women activists' tactics to recruit members and confront male authorities were shaped by pre-feminist gender norms and violent police resistance in Vietnam-era Chicago.