The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman Bronze Proembolion Found off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive
Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012
© 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology © 2012 The Nautical Archaeology Society
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology
Volume 42, Issue 1, pages 60–75, March 2013
How to Cite
Adams, J. R., Antoniadou, A., Hunt, C. O., Bennett, P., Croudace, I. W., Taylor, R. N., Pearce, R. B., Earl, G. P., Flemming, N. C., Moggeridge, J., Whiteside, T., Oliver, K. and Parker, A. J. (2013), The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman Bronze Proembolion Found off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 42: 60–75. doi: 10.1111/1095-9270.12001
- Issue published online: 4 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012
- Bronze ram;
The Belgammel Ram was found off the coast of Libya in 1964, and examined during 2008–9. The following techniques were used: surface non-contact digitizing using a laser scanner, reflectance transformation imaging using polynomial texture mapping and hemi-spherical harmonics, digital photogrammetry with dense surface modelling, structured light optical scanning, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. For internal structure the ram was examined by X-radiography and 3-D X-ray tomography. Metallurgical composition was studied by micro-drilling and subjecting the samples to scanning electron microscope X-ray micro-analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray backscatter. The lead isotope composition was analysed.
The alloy has average percentage composition Cu = 86.9, Sn = 6.3, Pb = 6.6, and Zn = < 0.10. The Belgammel Ram is probably a Hellenistic-Roman proembolion from a small military vessel or tesseraria. The archived data are at the Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Engineering Sciences, Material Data Centre, University of Southampton (email@example.com).