Personality and emotional factors are supposed to influence the course of skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Few reports exist, however, showing distinct personality traits among patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis patients and healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to examine personality differences among psoriasis patients, atopic dermatitis patients and healthy controls in Japan. A total number of 51 psoriasis patients, 97 atopic dermatitis patients and 48 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires of Yatabe–Guilford Personality Inventory were administered individually. These groups were evaluated by 12 dimensions of temperaments. According to the dimension scores, personality was defined as five groups. Atopic dermatitis patients showed significantly higher scores regarding temperaments of depression, feelings of inferiority, nervousness and lack of objectivity than psoriasis patients. Regarding a temperament of cyclic tendency and lack of cooperativeness, female atopic dermatitis patients showed significantly higher scores than female psoriasis patients. Regarding general activity, female atopic dermatitis patients showed significantly lower scores than those of female psoriasis patients. No significant difference in scores of temperaments of lack of agreeableness, rhathymia, thinking extraversion, ascendance and social extraversion were detected among psoriasis patients, atopic dermatitis patients and healthy controls. The personalities of male psoriasis patients were significantly different from those of atopic dermatitis patients and healthy controls. Female psoriasis patients showed a significantly different personality profile from that of atopic dermatitis patients, but not from healthy controls. Japanese psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients show distinct personality profiles suggesting that specific a psychosomatic approach may be required during the treatment.