T helper (Th) 17 cells are reportedly effector T cells that produce interleukin (IL)-17A and play a significant role in the development of autoimmune diseases and immune responses for antimicrobial host defense. Production of IL-17A in chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection (CAEBV) was studied to investigate its contribution to pathogenesis of this disease. Significantly more IL-17A-producing cells were detected in the peripheral blood of CAEBV patients than in that of healthy controls, although a significant difference in serum IL-17A production was not confirmed. Of the IL-17A-producing cells, 91.8% were cluster of differentiation (CD)4-positive Th17 cells. Moreover, there were significantly more IL-17A-producing cells among CD4+ cells in peripheral blood of CAEBV patients than in that of controls (1.97 ± 0.69% vs. 1.09 ± 0.53%, P = 0.0073). These data suggest that IL-17A-producing cells may influence the pathophysiology of CAEBV.