• 1
    Woods C.W., Ospanov K., Myrzabekov A., Favorov M., Plikaytis B., Ashford D.A. (2004) Risk factors for human anthrax among contacts of anthrax-infected livestock in Kazakhstan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 4852.
  • 2
    Hang'ombe M.B., Mwansa J.C., Muwowo S., Mulenga P., Kapina M., Musenga E., Squarre D., Mataa L., Thomas S.Y., Ogawa H., Sawa H., Higashi H. (2012) Human-animal anthrax outbreak in the Luangwa valley of Zambia in 2011. Trop Doct 42: 1369.
  • 3
    Baykam N., Ergonul O., Ulu A., Eren S., Celikbas A., Eroglu M., Dokuzoguz B. (2009) Characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in Turkey. J Inf Dev Countr 3: 599603.
  • 4
    Patil R.R. (2010) Anthrax: public health risk in India and socio-environmental determinants. Indian J Community Med 35: 18990.
  • 5
    Kumar A., Kanungo R., Bhattacharya S., Badrinath S., Dutta T.K., Swaminathan R.P. (2000) Human anthrax in India: urgent need for effective prevention. J Commun Dis 32: 2406.
  • 6
    Collier R.J., Young J.A. (2003) Anthrax toxin. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 19: 4570.
  • 7
    Ezzell J.W., Welkos S.L. (1999) The capsule of Bacillus anthracis, a review. J Appl Microbiol 87: 250.
  • 8
    Mock M., Mignot T. (2003) Anthrax toxins and the host: a story of intimacy. Cell Microbiol 5: 1523.
  • 9
    Turk B.E. (2007) Manipulation of host signalling pathways by anthrax toxins. Biochem J 402: 40517.
  • 10
    Singh Y., Klimpel K.R., Goel S., Swain P.K., Leppla S.H. (1999) Oligomerization of anthrax toxin protective antigen and binding of lethal factor during endocytic uptake into mammalian cells. Infect Immun 67: 18539.
  • 11
    Kobiler D., Weiss S., Levy H., Fisher M., Mechaly A., Pass A., Altboum Z. (2006) Protective antigen as a correlative marker for anthrax in animal models. Infect Immun 74: 58716.
  • 12
    Pitt M.L., Little S.F., Ivins B.E., Fellows P., Barth J., Hewetson J., Gibbs P., Dertzbaugh M., Friedlander A.M. (2001) In vitro correlate of immunity in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Vaccine 19: 476873.
  • 13
    Quinn C.P., Semenova V.A., Elie C.M., Romero-Steiner S., Greene C., Li H., Stamey K., Steward-Clark E., Schmidt D.S., Mothershed E., Pruckler J., Schwartz S., Benson R.F., Helsel L.O., Holder P.F., Johnson S.E., Kellum M., Messmer T., Thacker W.L., Besser L., Plikaytis B.D., Taylor T.H., Jr., Freeman A.E., Wallace K.J., Dull P., Sejvar J., Bruce E., Moreno R., Schuchat A., Lingappa J.R., Martin S.K., Walls J., Bronsdon M., Carlone G.M., Bajani-Ari M., Ashford D.A., Stephens D.S., Perkins B.A. (2002) Specific, sensitive, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunoglobulin G antibodies to anthrax toxin protective antigen. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 110310.
  • 14
    Ghosh N., Goel A.K. (2012) Anti-protective antigen IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in India. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19: 123842.
  • 15
    Semenova V.A., Schiffer J., Steward-Clark E., Soroka S., Schmidt D.S., Brawner M.M., Lyde F., Thompson R., Brown N., Foster L., Fox S., Patel N., Freeman A.E., Quinn C.P. (2012) Validation and long term performance characteristics of a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human anti-PA IgG. J Immunol Methods 376: 97107.
  • 16
    Wallace R., ed. (2008) Maxey-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 15th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
  • 17
    Cinquetti G., Banal F., Dupuy A.L., Girault P.Y., Couderc A., Guyot P., Alauzet C., Oddoux O., Ragot C., Puyhardy J.M., Graffin B., Veran Y. (2009) Three related cases of cutaneous anthrax in France: clinical and laboratory aspects. Medicine (Baltimore) 88: 3715.
  • 18
    Shlyakhov E., Rubinstein E. (1996) Evaluation of the anthraxin skin test for diagnosis of acute and past human anthrax. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15: 2425.
  • 19
    Quinn C.P., Dull P.M., Semenova V., Li H., Crotty S., Taylor T.H., Steward-Clark E., Stamey K.L., Schmidt D.S., Stinson K.W., Freeman A.E., Elie C.M., Martin S.K., Greene C., Aubert R.D., Glidewell J., Perkins B.A., Ahmed R., Stephens D.S. (2004) Immune responses to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in patients with bioterrorism-related cutaneous or inhalation anthrax. J Infect Dis 190: 122836.
  • 20
    Kwok W.W., Yang J., James E., Bui J., Huston L., Wiesen A.R., Roti M. (2008) The anthrax vaccine adsorbed vaccine generates protective antigen (PA)-specific CD4+ T cells with a phenotype distinct from that of naive PA T cells. Infect Immun 76: 453845.
  • 21
    Jernigan D.B., Raghunathan P.L., Bell B.P., Brechner R., Bresnitz E.A., Butler J.C., Cetron M., Cohen M., Doyle T., Fischer M., Greene C., Griffith K.S., Guarner J., Hadler J.L., Hayslett J.A., Meyer R., Petersen L.R., Phillips M., Pinner R., Popovic T., Quinn C.P., Reefhuis J., Reissman D., Rosenstein N., Schuchat A., Shieh W.J., Siegal L., Swerdlow D.L., Tenover F.C., Traeger M., Ward J.W., Weisfuse I., Wiersma S., Yeskey K., Zaki S., Ashford D.A., Perkins B.A., Ostroff S., Hughes J., Fleming D., Koplan J.P., Gerberding J.L. (2002) Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 101928.