Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity pulmonary disease that affects both patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and those with asthma. HLA-DRB1 alleles have previously been associated with ABPA–CF susceptibility; however, HLA-DQB1 allele associations have not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to investigate HLA class II associations in patients with ABPA–CF and determine their roles in susceptibility or protection. Patients with ABPA–CF, patients with CF without ABPA, patients with asthma without ABPA (AST), and healthy controls were included in this study. DNA was extracted by automatic extractor. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 genotyping was performed by the Luminex PCR-SSOP method (One Lambda, Canoga Park, CA, USA). Allele specific PCR-SSP was also performed by high-resolution analysis (One Lambda). Statistical analysis was performed with SSPS and Arlequin software. Both HLA-DRB1*5:01 and -DRB1*11:04 alleles occurred with greater frequency in patients with ABPA–CF than in those with AST and CF and control subjects, corroborating previously published data. On the other hand, analysis of haplotypes revealed that almost all patients with ABPA–CF lacking DRB1*15:01 or DRB1*11:04 carry either DRB1*04, DRB1*11:01, or DRB1*07:01 alleles. In the HLA-DQB1 region, the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele occurred more frequently in patients with ABPA–CF than in those with AST and CF and healthy controls, whereas HLA-DQB1*02:01 occurred less frequently in patients with ABPA–CF. These data confirm that there is a correlation between HLA-DRB1*15:01, –DRB1*11:04, DRB1*11:01, –DRB1*04 and –DRB1*07:01 alleles and ABPA–CF susceptibility and suggest that HLA-DQB1*02:01 is an ABPA–CF resistance allele.