• 1
    Totten P.A., Fennell C.L., Tenover F.C., Wezenberg J.M., Perine P.L., Stamm W.E., Holmes K.K. (1985) Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric disease in homosexual men. J Infect Dis 151: 1319.
  • 2
    Vandamme P., Falsen E., Rossau R., Hoste B., Segers P., Tytgat R., De Ley J. (1991) Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41: 88103.
  • 3
    Kiehlbauch J.A., Tauxe R.V., Baker C.N., Wachsmuth I.K. (1994) Helicobacter cinaedi-associated bacteremia and cellulitis in immunocompromised patients. Ann Intern Med 121: 903.
  • 4
    Mammen M.P. Jr., Aronson N.E., Edenfield W.J., Endy T.P. (1995) Recurrent Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus: case report. Clin Infect Dis 21: 1055.
  • 5
    Murakami H., Goto M., Ono E., Sawabe E., Iwata M., Okuzumi K., Yamaguchi K., Takahashi T. (2003) Isolation of Helicobacter cinaedi from blood of an immunocompromised patient in Japan. J Infect Chemother 9: 3443447.
  • 6
    Simons E., Spacek L.A., Lederman H.M., Winkelstein J.A. (2004) Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia presenting as macules in an afebrile patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Infection 32: 3678.
  • 7
    Weir S.C., Gibert C.L., Gordin F.M., Fischer S.H., Gill V.J. (1999) An uncommon Helicobacter isolate from blood: evidence of a group of Helicobacter spp. pathogenic in AIDS patients. J Clin Microbiol 37: 272933.
  • 8
    Burman W.J., Cohn D.L., Reves R.R., Wilson M.L. (1995) Multifocal cellulitis and monoarticular arthritis as manifestations of Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia. Clin Infect Dis 20: 56470.
  • 9
    Matsumoto T., Goto M., Murakami H., Tanaka T., Nishiyama H., Ono E., Okada C., Sawabe E., Yagoshi M., Yoneyama A., Okuzumi K., Tateda K., Misawa N., Yamaguchi K. (2007) Multicenter study to evaluate bloodstream infection by Helicobacter cinaedi in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 45: 28537.
  • 10
    Lawson A.J. (2011) Helicobacter. In: James V. ed. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 90015.
  • 11
    Kitamura T., Kawamura Y., Ohkusu K., Masaki T., Iwashita H., Sawa T., Fujii S., Okamoto T., Akaike T. (2007) Helicobacter cinaedi cellulitis and bacteremia in immunocompetent hosts after orthopedic surgery. J Clin Microbiol 45: 318.
  • 12
    Iwashita H., Fujii S., Kawamura Y., Okamoto T., Sawa T., Masaki T., Nishizono A., Higashi S., Kitamura T., Tamura F., Sasaki Y., Akaike T. (2008) Identification of the major antigenic protein of Helicobacter cinaedi and its immunogenicity in humans with H. cinaedi infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15: 51321.
  • 13
    Sacks L.V., Labriola A.M., Gill V.J., Gordin F.M. (1991) Use of ciprofloxacin for successful eradication of bacteremia due to Campylobacter cinaedi in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected person. Rev Infect Dis 13: 10668.
  • 14
    Kiehlbauch J.A., Brenner D.J., Cameron D.N., Steigerwalt A.G., Makowski J.M., Baker C.N., Patton C.M., Wachsmuth I.K. (1995) Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Helicobacter cinaedi and Helicobacter fennelliae strains isolated from humans and animals. J Clin Microbiol 33: 29407.
  • 15
    Oyama K., Khan S., Okamoto T., Fujii S., Ono K., Matsunaga T., Yoshitake J., Sawa T., Tomida J., Kawamura Y., Akaike T. (2012) Identification of and screening for human Helicobacter cinaedi infections and carriers via nested PCR. J Clin Microbiol 50: 3893900.
  • 16
    Sisto F., Scaltrito M.M., Russello G., Bonomi A., Dubini F. (2009) Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori determined by microdilution method using a new medium. Curr Microbiol 58: 55963.
  • 17
    Testerman T.L., McGee D.J., Mobley H.L. (2001) Helicobacter pylori growth and urease detection in the chemically defined medium Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture. J Clin Microbiol 39: 384250.
  • 18
    Flores B.M., Fennell C.L., Holmes K.K., Stamm W.E. (1985) In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter-like organisms to twenty antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28: 18891.
  • 19
    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012) Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved standard, 9th ed. Wayne, PA: CLSI.
  • 20
    Kawamura Y., Whiley R.A., Shu S.E., Ezaki T., Hardie J.M. (1999) Genetic approaches to the identification of the mitis group within the genus Streptococcus. Microbiology 145: 260513.
  • 21
    Wang L.H., Cheng H., Hu F.L., Li J. (2010) Distribution of gyrA mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains. World J Gastroenterol 16: 22727.
  • 22
    Miyachi H., Miki I., Aoyama N., Shirasaka D., Matsumoto Y., Toyoda M., Mitani T., Morita Y., Tamura T., Kinoshita S., Okano Y., Kumagai S., Kasuga M. (2006) Primary levofloxacin resistance and gyrA/B mutations among Helicobacter pylori in Japan. Helicobacter 11: 2439.
  • 23
    Kim J.M., Kim J.S., Kim N., Jung H.C., Song I.S. (2005) Distribution of fluoroquinolone MICs in Helicobacter pylori strains from Korean patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 56: 9657.
  • 24
    Minauchi K., Takahashi S., Sakai T., Kondo M., Shibayama K., Arakawa Y., Mukai M. (2010) The nosocomial transmission of Helicobacter cinaedi infections in immunocompromised patients. Intern Med 49: 17339.
  • 25
    Kuijper E.J., Stevens S., Imamura T., De Wever B., Claas E.C. (2003) Genotypic identification of erythromycin-resistant campylobacter isolates as helicobacter species and analysis of resistance mechanism. J Clin Microbiol 41: 37326.
  • 26
    Rimbara E., Mori S., Matsui M., Suzuki S., Wachino J., Kawamura Y., Shen Z., Fox J.G., Shibayama K. (2012) Molecular epidemiologic analysis and antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter cinaedi isolated from seven hospitals in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 50: 255360.
  • 27
    Cederbrant G., Kahlmeter G., Ljungh A. (1993) The E test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori. J Antimicrob Chemother 31: 6571.
  • 28
    Hirschl A.M., Hirschl M.M., Rotter M.L. (1993) Comparison of three methods for the determination of the sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole. J Antimicrob Chemother 32: 459.
  • 29
    Xia H., Keane C.T., Beattie S., O'Morain C.A. (1994) Standardization of disk diffusion test and its clinical significance for susceptibility testing of metronidazole against Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38: 235761.
  • 30
    Goto T., Ogura Y., Hirakawa H., Tomida J., Morita Y., Akaike T., Hayashi T., Kawamura Y. (2012) Complete genome sequence of Helicobacter cinaedi strain PAGU611, isolated in a case of human bacteremia. J Bacteriol 194: 37445.
  • 31
    Watanabe K., Tanaka A., Imase K., Tokunaga K., Sugano H., Kai A., Ishida H., Itoh T., Takahashi S. (2005) Amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacter pylori: studies from Tokyo, Japan from 1985 to 2003. Helicobacter 10: 411.
  • 32
    Kawakami Y., Akahane T., Gotoh A., Okimura Y., Oana K., Katsuyama T. (1997) Successful development of air-dried microplates (HP-Plates) for susceptibility testing against Helicobacter pylori isolates. Microbiol Immunol 41: 7038.