• 1
    Burstiner L.C., Faires M., Weese J.S. ( 2010) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in personnel attending a veterinary surgery conference. Vet Sur 39: 150157
  • 2
    Loeffler A., Pfeiffer D.U., Lindsay J.A., Magalhaes R.J., Lloyd D.H. ( 2010) Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA carriage in companion animals: a survey of dogs, cats and horses. Epidemiol Infect 139: 101928.
  • 3
    Loeffler A., Lloyd D.H. ( 2010) Companion animals: a reservoir for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community?. Epidemiol Infect 138: 595605.
  • 4
    Hanselman B.A., Kruth S.A., Rousseau J., Low D.E., Willey B.M., McGeer A., Weese J.S. ( 2006) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in veterinary personnel. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 19338.
  • 5
    Jordan D., Simon J., Fury S., Moss S., Giffard P., Maiwald M., Southwell P., Barton M.D., Axon J.E., Morris S.G., Trott D.J. ( 2011) Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by veterinarians in Australia. Aust Vet J 89: 1529.
  • 6
    Ishihara K., Shimokubo N., Sakagami A., Ueno H., Muramatsu Y., Kadosawa T., Yanagisawa C., Hanaki H., Nakajima C., Suzuki Y., Tamura Y. ( 2010) Occurrence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an academic veterinary hospital. Appl Environ Microbiol 76: 516574.
  • 7
    Allen J.L., Abraham L.A., Thompson K., Browning G.F. ( 2013) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an issue for veterinary hospitals. Aust Vet J 91: 2159.
  • 8
    Lina G., Piemont Y., Godail-Gamot F., Bes M., Peter M.O., Gauduchon V., Vandenesch F., Etienne J. ( 1999) Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 29: 112832.
  • 9
    Tsuchizaki N., Ishikawa J., Hotta K. ( 2000) Colony PCR for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance genes in MRSA and enterococci. Jpn J Antibiot 53: 4229.
  • 10
    Paule S.M., Pasquariello A.C., Hacek D.M., Fisher A.G., Thomson R.B., Kaul K.L., Peterson L.R. ( 2004) Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus from adult and neonate nasal swab specimens using real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Diagn 6: 1916.
  • 11
    Kondo Y., Ito T., Ma X.X., Watanabe S., Kreiswirth B.N., Etienne J., Hiramatsu K. ( 2007) Combination of multiplex PCRs for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type assignment: rapid identification system for mec, ccr, and major differences in junkyard regions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51: 26474.
  • 12
    Oliveira D.C., de Lencastre H. ( 2002) Multiplex PCR strategy for rapid identification of structural types and variants of the mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 215561.
  • 13
    Shopsin B., Gomez M., Montgomery S.O., Smith D.H., Waddington M., Dodge D.E., Bost D.A., Riehman M., Naidich S., Kreiswirth B.N. ( 1999) Evaluation of protein A gene polymorphic region DNA sequencing for typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Clin Microbiol 37: 355663.
  • 14
    Enright M.C., Day N.P., Davies C.E., Peacock S.J., Spratt B.G. ( 2000) Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 38: 100815.
  • 15
    Clinical, Laboratory Standards Institute. ( 2011) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twenty-first informational supplement M10021.
  • 16
    Moodley A., Nightingale E.C., Stegger M., Nielsen S.S., Skov R.L., Guardabassi L. ( 2008) High risk for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Danish veterinary practitioners. Scand J Work Environ Health 34: 1517.
  • 17
    Heller J., Armstrong S.K., Girvan E.K., Reid S.W.J., Moodley A., Mellor D.J. ( 2009) Prevalence and distribution of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within the environment and staff of a university veterinary clinic. J Small Anim Pract 50: 16873.
  • 18
    Sasaki T., Kikuchi K., Tanaka Y., Takahashi N., Kamata S., Hiramatsu K. ( 2007) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a veterinary teaching hospital. J Clin Microbiol 45: 111825.
  • 19
    Loeffler A., Pfeiffer D.U., Lloyd D.H., Smith H., Soares-Magalhaes R., Lindsay J.A. ( 2010) Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in UK veterinary staff and owners of infected pets: new risk groups. J Hosp Infect 74: 2828.
  • 20
    Abbott Y., Leggett B., Rossney A.S., Leonard F.C., Markey B.K. ( 2010) Isolation rates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dogs, cats and horses in Ireland. Vet Rec 166: 4515.
  • 21
    Hanselman B.A., Kruth S.A., Rousseau J., Weese J.S. ( 2009) Coagulase positive staphylococcal colonization of human and their household pets. Can Vet J 50: 9548.
  • 22
    Paul N.C., Bärgman S.C., Moodley A., Nielsen S.S., Guardabassi L. ( 2012) Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonization patterns and strain diversity in healthy dogs: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Vet Microbiol 160: 4207.
  • 23
    Piao C., Karasawa T., Totsuka K., Uchiyama T., Kikuchi K. ( 2005) Prospective surveillance of community-onset and health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a university-affiliated hospital in Japan. Microbiol Immunol 49: 95970.
  • 24
    Zaraket H., Otsuka T., Saito K., Dohmae S., Takano T., Higuchi W., Ohkubo T., Ozaki K., Takano M., Reva I., Baranovich T., Yamamoto T. ( 2007) Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals in Niigata, Japan: divergence and transmission. Microbiol Immunol 51: 1716.
  • 25
    Furuya D., Tsuji N., Kuribayashi K., Tanaka M., Hosono Y., Uehara N., Watanabe N. ( 2010) Evaluation of spa typing for the classification of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Jpn J Infect Dis 63: 3647.
  • 26
    Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Available from URL:
  • 27
    Fossum A.E., Bukholm G. ( 2006) Increased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST80, novel ST125 and SCCmec IV in the south-eastern part of Norway during a 12-year period. Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 62733.
  • 28
    Argudin M.A., Mendoza M.C., Mendez F.J., Martin M.C., Guerra B., Rodicio M.R. ( 2009) Clonal complexes and diversity of exotoxin gene profiles in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients in a Spanish hospital. J Clin Microbiol 47: 2097105.
  • 29
    Cha H.Y., Moon D.C., Choi C.H., Oh J.Y., Jeong Y.S., Lee Y.C., Seol S.Y., Cho D.T., Chang H.H., Kim S.W., Lee J.C. ( 2005) Prevalence of the ST239 clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities of ST239 and ST5 clones identified in a Korean hospital. J Clin Microbiol 43: 36104.
  • 30
    Park C., Lee D.G., Kim S.W., Choi S.M., Park S.H., Chun H.S., Choi J.H., Yoo J.H., Shin W.S., Kang J.H., Kim J.H., Lee S.Y., Kim S.M., Pyun B.Y. ( 2007) Predominance of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec type IVA in South Korea. J Clin Microbiol 45: 40216.
  • 31
    Otsuka T., Zaraket H., Fujii K., Masuda Y., Komiyama K., Ishikawa Y., Shirai T., Iwaya A., Okazaki M. ( 2012) Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children in a community with low antimicrobial pressure in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 65: 4838.