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Keywords:

  • muramyldipeptide;
  • peptidoglycan;
  • Staphylococcus aureus;
  • Th2 cells

ABSTRACT

In this study, peptidoglycan (PEG) from Staphylococcus aureus-stimulated, but not muramyldipeptide (MDP)-stimulated, Langerhans cells (LCs) induced a dose-dependent Th2-prone immune response. However, when LCs were stimulated with PEG in combination with MDP, the strength of Th2 immune responses was synergistically augmented by MDP. Furthermore, it was found that production of IL-10, but not of IL-12 p40, by PEG-stimulated LCs was also enhanced in the presence of MDP. These results suggest that MDP enhances Th2 cell development through up-regulation of IL-10 production from PEG-stimulated LCs, increase the importance of S. aureus colonization in patients with atopic dermatitis.