Anti-quorum sensing activity of Psidium guajava L. flavonoids against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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ABSTRACT

Psidium guajava L., which has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, was explored for anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity. The anti-QS activity of the flavonoid (FL) fraction of P. guajava leaves was determined using a biosensor bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Detailed investigation of the effects of the FL-fraction on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was performed using standard methods. Possible mechanisms of QS-inhibition were studied by assessing violacein production in response to N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis in the presence of the FL-fraction in C. violaceum ATCC31532 and by evaluating the induction of violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026 by AHL extracted from the culture supernatants of C. violaceum 31532. Active compounds in the FL-fraction were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Inhibition of violacein production by the FL-fraction in a C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay indicated possible anti-QS activity. The FL-fraction showed concentration-dependent decreases in violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 and inhibited pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, the FL-fraction did not inhibit AHL synthesis; AHL extracted from cultures of C. violaceum 31532 grown in the presence of the FL-fraction induced violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026. LC–MS analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside in the FL-fraction. Both quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum 12472, at 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Results of this study provide scope for further research to exploit these active molecules as anti-QS agents.

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